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世界卫生组织:中国青少年近视率居世界第一

发布时间:2018-11-05 16:21
世界卫生组织的一项研究报告显示,目前我国近视患者达6亿,青少年近视率居世界第一。高中生和大学生的近视率均已超过七成并逐年上升,小学生的近视率也接近40%。
 
According to a study by the World Health Organization, there are 600 million myopic patients in China, and the rate of juvenile myopia ranks first in the world. The myopia rate of high school students and college students has exceeded 70% and increased year by year. The myopia rate of primary school students is also close to 40%.
 
 
 
近日,教育部、国家卫生健康委员会共同起草《综合防控儿童青少年近视实施方案(征求意见稿)》(以下简称《征求意见稿》),并面向社会征求意见。其中提到,到2030年,小学生近视率下降到38%以下,初中生近视率下降到60%以下,高中生近视率下降到70%以下。同时,将儿童青少年近视防控工作、总体近视率和体质健康状况纳入政府绩效考核指标,对儿童青少年体质健康水平连续3年下降的地方政府和学校依法依规予以问责。
 
Recently, the Ministry of Education and the National Health Commission jointly drafted the "Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Myopia among Children and Adolescents" (hereinafter referred to as the "Draft for Views") and sought opinions from the community. It is mentioned that by 2030, the myopia rate of primary school students will fall below 38%, that of junior high school students will fall below 60%, and that of senior high school students will fall below 70%. At the same time, the prevention and control of myopia among children and adolescents, the overall myopia rate and physical health status are included in the government performance evaluation indicators. Local governments and schools that have declined the physical health level of children and adolescents for three consecutive years are accountable according to the law.
 
 
 
中国青少年近视率居世界第一,各国预防近视妙招
 
The prevalence of myopia in China ranks first in the world.
 
 
 
为何近年来我国青少年近视率只增不减?这背后有什么原因?对此,记者进行了调查。
 
Why has the rate of myopia among adolescents only increased in recent years in China? What is the reason behind this? In this regard, reporters conducted a survey.
 
 
 
近视率上升且呈低龄化趋势
 
Myopia rate increased and showed a trend of younger age.
 
 
 
8月14日,在北京同仁医院外科二区前的视力检测处,排着十来个等待检测视力的患者,其中九成是孩子。在该区的8个诊室,唯独专设的“儿童屈光专台”门口人满为患。一位医生告诉记者:“儿童屈光专门诊室一天要接待病患100多人,到了假期,根本忙不过来。”
 
On August 14, at the visual acuity testing office in front of the second surgical District of Tongren Hospital in Beijing, there were more than ten patients waiting for visual acuity testing. Ninety percent of them were children. In the 8 consulting room of the area, only the dedicated children's refractive surgery station is crowded. A doctor told reporters: "The special clinic for children's refraction receives more than 100 patients a day. When it comes to holidays, it's too busy at all."
 
 
 
在候诊室里,来自内蒙古的黄女士告诉记者,她发现读一年级的孩子看电视时会往前凑,看远处物体时会不由自主地眯起眼睛,所以才到医院检查。“可一发现就晚了,近视200度加散光50度。”黄女士说,戴上眼镜不到半年,孩子的眼镜度数又上升了50度,达到300度,这让她心急如焚。
 
In the waiting room, Ms. Huang, from Inner Mongolia, told reporters that she found that children in grade one would move forward while watching TV and squint their eyes involuntarily when looking at distant objects, so they went to the hospital for examination. "It can be found late, myopia 200 degrees plus astigmatism 50 degrees." Ms. Huang said that in less than six months after wearing glasses, the child's glasses increased by 50 degrees to 300 degrees, which made her very anxious.
 
 
 
“近视成因分为先天因素和环境因素,由先天因素为主导致的高度近视,其患病率较为恒定。而后天环境因素中,生活方式特别是户外活动不足、学业负担过重等引起的近视越来越明显。”复旦大学附属眼耳鼻喉科医院副院长、上海眼视光学研究中心主任周行涛表示,当前我国青少年近视呈现低龄化特点,近视患病率仍在上升。
 
"The causes of myopia can be divided into congenital factors and environmental factors. The prevalence of high myopia caused mainly by congenital factors is relatively constant. Among acquired environmental factors, myopia caused by inadequate lifestyle, especially outdoor activities and overburdened schoolwork is becoming more and more obvious. Zhou Xingtao, deputy dean of the Affiliated Eye, Otolaryngology Hospital of Fudan University and director of Shanghai Ophthalmology and Optics Research Center, said that the prevalence of myopia among adolescents in China is still on the rise.
 
 
 
不断升高的近视率让人担忧。2015年北京大学中国健康发展研究中心李玲团队发布的《国民视觉健康报告》显示,我国高中生和大学生近视患病率均超过70%,视力不良检出率呈上升趋势。
 
The rising myopia rate is worrying. According to the National Visual Health Report issued by Li Ling of China Health Development Research Center of Peking University in 2015, the prevalence of myopia among high school students and college students in China is over 70%, and the detection rate of poor eyesight is on the rise.
 
 
 
近年来,在青少年群体中多发的近视正呈低龄化和上升趋势。教育部的统计数据显示,我国学生视力不良低龄化趋势明显,小学生近视10年翻一倍。
 
In recent years, many myopia among young people is showing a younger age and an upward trend. Statistics from the Ministry of Education show that the trend of poor eyesight among pupils in China is obviously younger, and pupils'myopia has doubled in 10 years.
 
 
 
学业压力、电子产品是罪魁祸首
 
Academic pressure and electronic products are the main culprits.
 
 
 
中小学生群体中近视率不断升高的问题,并非近年才出现的,而课内外负担过重一直被当作近视发生的重要原因。
 
The problem of increasing myopia rate among primary and secondary school students is not new in recent years, and overburdened in and out of class has always been regarded as an important cause of myopia.
 
 
 
近日发布的《中国义务教育质量监测报告》数据显示,户外锻炼不达标、学习负担过重以及睡眠不足等现象依旧普遍存在于中小学生的日常生活中,且随着年级越高,这种现象越严重。
 
According to the recently released "China Compulsory Education Quality Monitoring Report", outdoor exercise is not up to the standard, the burden of learning is too heavy, and lack of sleep are still widespread in the daily life of primary and secondary school students, and the higher the grade, the more serious this phenomenon is.
 
 
 
“表面上,大多数家长表示孩子的视力和学习成绩一样重要,但是实际中,他们更倾向于牺牲孩子的部分视力去换取成绩。”上海市眼病防治中心公共卫生副主任医师、防治科副科长何鲜桂说。
 
"On the surface, most parents say that children's eyesight is as important as their academic performance, but in practice, they are more likely to sacrifice part of their children's eyesight for achievement." Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center, deputy director of public health physician, deputy director of prevention and treatment He Xiangui said.
 
 
 
记者发现,小学一、二年级不留书面作业,三至六年级书面作业完成时间不得超过60分钟,初中不得超过90分钟,原则上采用纸质作业等减负措施,被写入了《征求意见稿》。
 
Reporters found that the first and second grade of primary school did not leave written work, the third to sixth grade written work completion time should not exceed 60 minutes, junior middle school should not exceed 90 minutes, in principle, using paperwork and other burden reduction measures, was written into the "draft for comments".
 
 
 
在同仁医院,一位来自山西大同的家长告诉记者,孩子每天除了定时完成学习任务,就是玩智能手机、平板电脑,几乎不出门活动,“天天提醒督促,也没有用”。
 
In Tongren Hospital, a parent from Datong, Shanxi, told reporters that every day, besides completing their learning tasks regularly, the children play smartphones and tablets, and hardly go out for activities. "It's no use reminding and supervising every day."
 
 
 
平板电脑、智能手机等电子产品的频繁使用,使孩子继续沉迷于各种电子产品中,对于降低近视发生的概率更是雪上加霜。一项对2017名受访者进行的调查显示,89.5%的受访者称周围中小学生患近视的多,长期使用电子产品被视为罪魁祸首。
 
The frequent use of tablets, smart phones and other electronic products makes children continue to indulge in a variety of electronic products, which is even worse for reducing the probability of myopia. A survey of 2017 respondents showed that 89.5% of the respondents said that most of the primary and secondary school students around them suffered from myopia, and long-term use of electronic products was regarded as the culprit.
 
 
 
儿童青少年的视觉神经还没有发育完善,长时间注视电子屏幕,导致其用眼强度增大,眨眼频率降低,很容易造成视力减退。周行涛直言:“无节制地过长时间使用电子产品,对眼健康肯定是不利的,对近视的发展会产生影响。”
 
The visual nerve of children and adolescents has not yet developed perfectly. Long time gazing at the electronic screen leads to the increase of the intensity of their eyes and the decrease of blinking frequency, which can easily lead to visual impairment. Zhou Xingtao bluntly said: "The uncontrolled use of electronic products for too long is certainly not conducive to eye health, and will have an impact on the development of myopia."
 
 
 
本次《征求意见稿》提出“刚性”的数据指标,在2018年的基础上,每年降低0.5个百分点以上,近视高发省份每年降低1个百分点以上。防近视需要家庭、学校、医疗卫生机构、学生以及有关部门多方联动。
 
This draft of soliciting opinions puts forward the data index of "rigidity". On the basis of 2018, it reduces by more than 0.5 percentage points per year, and by more than 1 percentage point per year in provinces with high incidence of myopia. Myopia prevention requires family, school, medical and health institutions, students and related departments to interact with each other.

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