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发布时间:2018-11-05 16:21
According to a study by the World Health Organization, there are 600 million myopic patients in China, and the rate of juvenile myopia ranks first in the world. The myopia rate of high school students and college students has exceeded 70% and increased year by year. The myopia rate of primary school students is also close to 40%.
Recently, the Ministry of Education and the National Health Commission jointly drafted the "Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Myopia among Children and Adolescents" (hereinafter referred to as the "Draft for Views") and sought opinions from the community. It is mentioned that by 2030, the myopia rate of primary school students will fall below 38%, that of junior high school students will fall below 60%, and that of senior high school students will fall below 70%. At the same time, the prevention and control of myopia among children and adolescents, the overall myopia rate and physical health status are included in the government performance evaluation indicators. Local governments and schools that have declined the physical health level of children and adolescents for three consecutive years are accountable according to the law.
The prevalence of myopia in China ranks first in the world.
Why has the rate of myopia among adolescents only increased in recent years in China? What is the reason behind this? In this regard, reporters conducted a survey.
Myopia rate increased and showed a trend of younger age.
On August 14, at the visual acuity testing office in front of the second surgical District of Tongren Hospital in Beijing, there were more than ten patients waiting for visual acuity testing. Ninety percent of them were children. In the 8 consulting room of the area, only the dedicated children's refractive surgery station is crowded. A doctor told reporters: "The special clinic for children's refraction receives more than 100 patients a day. When it comes to holidays, it's too busy at all."
In the waiting room, Ms. Huang, from Inner Mongolia, told reporters that she found that children in grade one would move forward while watching TV and squint their eyes involuntarily when looking at distant objects, so they went to the hospital for examination. "It can be found late, myopia 200 degrees plus astigmatism 50 degrees." Ms. Huang said that in less than six months after wearing glasses, the child's glasses increased by 50 degrees to 300 degrees, which made her very anxious.
"The causes of myopia can be divided into congenital factors and environmental factors. The prevalence of high myopia caused mainly by congenital factors is relatively constant. Among acquired environmental factors, myopia caused by inadequate lifestyle, especially outdoor activities and overburdened schoolwork is becoming more and more obvious. Zhou Xingtao, deputy dean of the Affiliated Eye, Otolaryngology Hospital of Fudan University and director of Shanghai Ophthalmology and Optics Research Center, said that the prevalence of myopia among adolescents in China is still on the rise.
The rising myopia rate is worrying. According to the National Visual Health Report issued by Li Ling of China Health Development Research Center of Peking University in 2015, the prevalence of myopia among high school students and college students in China is over 70%, and the detection rate of poor eyesight is on the rise.
In recent years, many myopia among young people is showing a younger age and an upward trend. Statistics from the Ministry of Education show that the trend of poor eyesight among pupils in China is obviously younger, and pupils'myopia has doubled in 10 years.
Academic pressure and electronic products are the main culprits.
The problem of increasing myopia rate among primary and secondary school students is not new in recent years, and overburdened in and out of class has always been regarded as an important cause of myopia.
According to the recently released "China Compulsory Education Quality Monitoring Report", outdoor exercise is not up to the standard, the burden of learning is too heavy, and lack of sleep are still widespread in the daily life of primary and secondary school students, and the higher the grade, the more serious this phenomenon is.
"On the surface, most parents say that children's eyesight is as important as their academic performance, but in practice, they are more likely to sacrifice part of their children's eyesight for achievement." Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Treatment Center, deputy director of public health physician, deputy director of prevention and treatment He Xiangui said.
Reporters found that the first and second grade of primary school did not leave written work, the third to sixth grade written work completion time should not exceed 60 minutes, junior middle school should not exceed 90 minutes, in principle, using paperwork and other burden reduction measures, was written into the "draft for comments".
In Tongren Hospital, a parent from Datong, Shanxi, told reporters that every day, besides completing their learning tasks regularly, the children play smartphones and tablets, and hardly go out for activities. "It's no use reminding and supervising every day."
The frequent use of tablets, smart phones and other electronic products makes children continue to indulge in a variety of electronic products, which is even worse for reducing the probability of myopia. A survey of 2017 respondents showed that 89.5% of the respondents said that most of the primary and secondary school students around them suffered from myopia, and long-term use of electronic products was regarded as the culprit.
The visual nerve of children and adolescents has not yet developed perfectly. Long time gazing at the electronic screen leads to the increase of the intensity of their eyes and the decrease of blinking frequency, which can easily lead to visual impairment. Zhou Xingtao bluntly said: "The uncontrolled use of electronic products for too long is certainly not conducive to eye health, and will have an impact on the development of myopia."
This draft of soliciting opinions puts forward the data index of "rigidity". On the basis of 2018, it reduces by more than 0.5 percentage points per year, and by more than 1 percentage point per year in provinces with high incidence of myopia. Myopia prevention requires family, school, medical and health institutions, students and related departments to interact with each other.

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